Sunday, February 23, 2020
McCains Proposal to Cut Tricare for Retirees and it's Impact - Essay Example To support this move, leaders from the Army, Marine Corps, Navy and Air force testified citing the devastating effects would have. Unfortunately, these military Leaders were uninformed about the proposal to cut TRICARE for retirees and its effects. The cuts known as sequestration will have an impact of weapons modernization and force levels if the committee does not cut a deal by the deadline. According to Philpott (2011), Senator McCain stated that putting retirees under the age of sixty-five to forcefully use TRICARE standard, health insurance from civilian employers or free-for service among other options would help the department of defense save up to one hundred and eleven billion dollars in the coming decade. In McCainÃ¢â¬â¢s view, it would be better to remove the TRICARE deal than take an alternative that would reduce funds for equipment, essential weapon programs and training that is needed by the military. McCainÃ¢â¬â¢s reason for bringing up the proposal, according to a staff member was to ensure that the super committee picks an option that would not compromise the department of defense, military personnel and their families while maintaining TRICARE provisions (Philpott, 2011). However much this proposal might seem perfect, it is bound to cause more harm than good. The military personnel will not accept this proposal. ... Cutting the TRICARE prime would make them use other options used by the civilians. This is bound to be expensive for the military retirees. The premise that restricting military retirees and their families from TRICARE prime would make them avoid spending cuts would not be cost-effective. Cuts must be spent either way. Restricting participation in TRICARE prime would not save any cost. Most military working-age retirees are not rich. Cutting them off from TRICARE prime would seriously impair their financial capacities. Another impact the proposal would have is that is has not considered retirees under the age of sixty who do not have additional health insurance, have no employment or are homeless. All military retirees should receive the same treatment from the government. Restricting TRICARE prime against working-age retirees will be a form of discrimination. They choose to get into the military to protect the country. However, they do not choose to retire early. It is because of me dical and disabling conditions that arise from work related issues that make force them to retire. Unlike retires over the age of 65, the working-age military retirees retire while young and may not get other employments because of their medical and or disabling conditions. Therefore, this proposal would discriminate on retires based on age. The fact that working age military retirees make up almost half of the percentage of TRICARE eligible population does not make it right for them to be used as sacrificial lamps in order to save cuts. This would be problematic because there is no justification as to why they should be restricted together with their families. Their chances of getting other employment opportunities are as slim as those
Friday, February 7, 2020
Reflective - Research Paper Example There are different authors that list different ways to analyze a movie. The first thing of importance is to be sure to go into the movie with an open mind and not to have formulated an opinion ahead of time. The viewer must be open and receptive to all parts of the movie (Boggs & Petrie, 2008). Whatever is driving you to analyze this movie, whether it is for self interest or otherwise, there are some very organized methods to follow. The theme of the movie should be found but in order to do that you have to see the film so lets start a little earlier than that. Analyze the title and the credits. You have done this before but just do not realize it. Pay close attention and see what is picked up from these. Why was the movie titled the way it was? Is that important to this movie? You will not know unless you have paid attention as the movie opens. A great movie gets your attention and conveys emotion to the audience. You will begin to think about the theme as soon as the movie opens. The theme may be very difficult to understand or it may be very easy. Either way, it may or may not have significance in telling the story(steps to analyze). Characters are extremely important and as the analyst should try to understand the main characters and how the other characters relate to them. The characters will also relate back to the theme of the movie. Boggs & Petrie (2008), tell the reader that the analyst should begin to understand the characters within thirty minutes and be able to have enough understanding of the theme to begin to decide what kind of film he is watching and relate it to the classics. As one analyzes the film, take detailed notice and try to catch as much as possible in each scene including such things as camera lighting and costumes. What does the dialogue make you think of? Is it natural and believable or not? The characters dialogue should not be trying to describe the theme
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Past and Present Chapter Essay Opportunity and self-made men were the order of the day The founding fathers considered democracy to be direct rule of the people A concept they feared and rejected Jacksonians considered Ã¢â¬Å"the voice of the peopleÃ¢â¬ to be Ã¢â¬Å"the voice of GodÃ¢â¬ Democracy and Society No one could expect social privilege because of family ties European visitors noted the lack of first class accommodations The word Ã¢â¬Å"servantÃ¢â¬ was disappearing; in its place was Ã¢â¬Å"helpÃ¢â¬ Domestic workers were not considered a social subclass Members of different earning groups dressed similarly Democracy expressed itself in medicine, law and religion Unorthodox Ã¢â¬Å"healersÃ¢â¬ were given place alongside doctors Local bars allowed lower standards in some areas The clergy came under more control of the laity The popular press became increasingly important Written and read by common people Many small venues and a few influential papers with large readership Democratic Culture Democratic expression in literature and art Popular taste v. elite or traditional culture Romanticism was Ã¢â¬Å"adaptedÃ¢â¬ to sentimentalism in popular literature Formulaic gothic novels sold well Possible because of increased literacy Also cheaper printing More novels written by women Universal white manhood suffrage was the rule by the 1820s Rise in elected v appointed officials Stump speaking and campaigning became the norm More festive and dramatic Martin Van Buren and others began to build statewide political organizations Idea of the Ã¢â¬Å"loyal oppositionÃ¢â¬ developed Other political changes Two party system enhanced Electors more often chosen by popular vote Voting percentages increased dramatically 1824Ã¢â¬â27% 1828Ã¢â¬â55% 1840Ã¢â¬â78% Why more interest? Panic of 1819Ã¢â¬âconcern about money issues Issues such as banks, tariffs, internal improvements Jacksonians were concerned about monied interests Opponents were concerned about rabble rousers Should the federal government become more active? Foster economic growth? Destroy corporate privilege and monopoly? Support the rights of the working man? Abolish inheritance, improve public education? New York Working MenÃ¢â¬â¢s Party thought so Also favored redistribution of assets Philadelphia was a center of labor activity General TradesÃ¢â¬â¢ Unions was formed Achieved a 10-hour workday Set an early precedent for mass action Abolitionists became more active Some also wanted equal rights for women These reformers saw little success.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The Libyan Head of State, Muammar al Qaddafi Muammar al Qaddafi is a very dangerous man. He promotes terrorism, and radical causes. He is committed against the U.S, and will help almost anyone who is also against the U.S. He is very intelligent and crafty. In 1969 he led a coup against the Libyan government. He succeeded, and became head of state. He is a devoted Muslim. Qaddafi is a person to be read about and learned about. As I mentioned above, one of his greatest successes was leading a bloodless coup against the Libyan monarchy. He became head of state. Another success is that fact that most Libyans lead good lives. All Libyans have a house or an apartment, a car, and most have televisions, phones, and recording equipment. The young people are well dressed and fed. He has survived many coup attempts against him. His face and picture are in most buildings in Libya. He always was devoted to school as a kid. He would take a long hike from the desert to school. He would come home only every Thursday, the beginning of the Muslim weekend. Then he would go back to school. He was the first in his family to be well educated. One of his first goals when he was a child was to join the Libyan army. He slowly moved up in rank. It was surprising they even let him in the army; he had a long police record. He eventually joined the King's police. This was when the idea of a coup attempt came. He did succeed. Qaddafi was born in a tent in the desert 20 miles south of the sea. This is a desolate place- burning hot in the summer, and freezing cold in the winter. Most people would consider this place to be uninhabitable. His father was at the bottom of social level in this very poor country. The name of tribe Qaddadfa means in Arabic, " Spitter or vomiter of blood." In Qaddafi's early years, in the 1940's there were tank battles in the desert and thousands of bombing raids by Germans in Libya. Besides this, in the 1920's the Italians under Mussolini had conquered Libya for the second time and had killed large numbers of women, children and old people. They trampled on copies of the Koran, threw men out of airplanes and raped and disembowelled women. So the Libyans of Qaddafi generation grew up full of
Sunday, January 12, 2020
What is the ultimate purpose of a fairytale? According to Bruno Bettelheim its purpose is to show children Ã¢â¬Å"that a struggle against severe difficulties in life is unavoidable, is an intrinsic part of human existence-but that if [they do] not shy away, but steadfastly [meet] unexpected and often unjust hardships, [they master] all obstacles and at the end [emerge] victoriousÃ¢â¬ (8). DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s The Little Mermaid fulfills this purpose; children see ArielÃ¢â¬â¢s struggles and because they identify with her they feel as if they struggle and triumph with her (Bettelheim, 9). Ariel is a very likable character, sheÃ¢â¬â¢s witty, beautiful, and children can relate to her. Some of the obstacles and struggles Ariel faces are things children face in their own lives, for example ArielÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to be independent and establish herself. Although The Little Mermaid conforms to BrunoÃ¢â¬â¢s formula, it also teaches children other life lessons that may not be healthy or appropriate in the long run. In this case the messages sent to children concerning romance and love provide children images and behaviors that teach them true love is spontaneous, passionate, for attractive people only, and is Ã¢â¬Å"happily ever afterÃ¢â¬ . What is a real life definition of love? Love is a complex and profound concept that cannot be easily defined. Robert Sternberg explains love by breaking it into three different concepts known as the Triangular Theory of Love (as cited by Miller, 246-50): intimacy, passion and commitment. The Triangular Theory of Love defines intimacy as Ã¢â¬Å"feelings of warmth, understanding, communication, support, and sharing that often characterize loving relationshipsÃ¢â¬ (as cited by Miller, 247). Passion is Ã¢â¬Å"physical arousal and desireÃ¢â¬ ¦often [taking] the form of sexual longing, but [can be] any strong emotional need that is satisfied by ones partnerÃ¢â¬ (as cited by Miller, 247). And last but not least commitment is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the decisions to devote oneself to a relationship and work to maintain itÃ¢â¬ (as cited by Miller, 247). When these three concepts are put together in different combinations you get different types of love, eight to be specific (Miller, 249). The type of love that is shown in The Little Mermaid is infatuation, which is passion with no commitment and no intimacy. Ariel falls in love with Eric the very moment she lays eyes on him, she knows nothing about him but believes she loves him. This example of love at first sight teaches children if you are strongly attracted to someone the first time you see them that this simple attraction, often times physical attraction signifies love. But what is it about Eric that attracts Ariel to him? Is it his dark hair, perfect smile, his dimples, his body and the fact that he is dancing? Possibly, but what also needs to be taken into account is who he is being compared to. The other men on the ship are either old, fat, scrawny, bald, boyish looking, have teeth missing or are dressed badly. Eric is the complete opposite of them. Another aspect to look at this from is what Miller, Perlman, and Brehm refer to as the misattribution of arousal, which is in basic form misplacing or exaggerating our attraction to others (251). They explain that we can be aroused by something positive or negative, not knowing we are aroused by it and then attribute another event or person as the reason for our arousal (251-252). Which is what happens in the movie, just minutes before seeing Eric, Ariel has an argument with her father. The argument is about her missing the concert and swimming up to the surface. The argument seems one sided because Triton does all the talking and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t let Ariel explain herself. She swims off to where she keeps her collection of human things that she finds on her adventures with Flounder, her animal sidekick. She begins to sing about wanting to be human so she can experience lying on the beach, walking on two feet and feeling the warmth from a fire. Afterwards she sees a ship passing over and swims to the surface, partly out of rebellion and partly out of curiosity. Her emotions are already aroused before she sees Eric. Furthermore, she has already made up in her mind that she wants to be human; Eric just becomes an excuse, the reason why she should become human. Ariel experiences a misplaced attraction; Eric makes her emotions make sense. The problem now is Eric has no idea she even exists. On the other side, Eric too experiences a similar form of misattributed arousal. Eric has a conversation with Grimsby about finding a wife. Eric is obviously under a lot of pressure to settle down but he wants to find the right girl. Not to long after this conversation the ship is struck by lightening. Everyone escapes and makes it on the life- boat, but Eric swims back to the ship to save his dog Max. The ship blows up and Eric falls in the water. Ariel then saves his life by swimming him safely to shore. This is the very first time Eric sees Ariel, they have no conversation, sheÃ¢â¬â¢s just looking into his face singing. Ariel is startled by Max and goes back in the water. Eric realizes that she is Ã¢â¬Å"the oneÃ¢â¬ and instantly falls in love with her. Now that Eric knows that Ariel exists all she can do is wait for him to come save her from a life under the sea. Marcia Lieberman says that Ã¢â¬Å"most of the heroinesÃ¢â¬ ¦are merely passive, submissive, and helplessÃ¢â¬ (388). And she goes on to say, Ã¢â¬Å"many of the girls are not merely passive, however; they are frequently victims and even martyrs as wellÃ¢â¬ (390). Ariel doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything after saving EricÃ¢â¬â¢s life. She swims around the castle in Ã¢â¬Å"lala landÃ¢â¬ , daydreaming and fantasizing of her prince. But not only does this show her passiveness, she is also portrayed as a victim. Her father doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand her; he wants her to live a life under the sea but refuses to see how unhappy she is with that life. After Triton finds out about Eric he destroys ArielÃ¢â¬â¢s collection along with the statue of Eric. Ariel is then left with no other choice but to go behind her fathers back and see Ursula, the sea witch. Ursula offers Ariel the chance of a lifetime, to be with Eric, but it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t come without paying a price. Ariel has to give Ursula her voice, leaving her to seduce Eric with her beauty. This message tells children that love is based on beauty. Ursula tells Ariel that she Ã¢â¬Å"has [her] looks, [her] pretty face, [and not to underestimate] the importance of body languageÃ¢â¬ . Basically telling her that her Ã¢â¬Å"beauty [is her] most valuable asset, perhaps her only valuable assetÃ¢â¬ (Lieberman, 385). Thus, indiscreetly telling her to disregard the importance of character, integrity and individuality and to focus on being beautiful. Ariel is young, has big blue eyes, red full lips. Long flowing red hair, a perfect body, she is half naked and has fair skin. Compared to all the other characters Ariel has the most sex appeal, and being that children relate to her over all the other characters, children want to be like her. But not only does Ariel have sex appeal she has a pleasant and friendly personality. She is caring, adventurous, independent, good-tempered, and outgoing. The problem with this image is children, mainly girls Ã¢â¬Å"may be predisposed to imagine that there is a link between the loveable face and the lovable character, and to fear, if plain themselves, that they will also prove to be unpleasant, thus using the patterns to set up self-fulfilling propheciesÃ¢â¬ (Lieberman, 385). Ursula for example is ugly, fat, old and has a mean personality. Children may begin to think that ugly people have Ã¢â¬Å"uglyÃ¢â¬ personalities and cant have true love, and pretty people have Ã¢â¬Å"prettyÃ¢â¬ personalities and are the only people who can experience true love. Jillian Cantor and Leta McGaffey Sharp explain it in this way, Ã¢â¬Å"women are won by sensitive men with chocolates and flowers, men are dazzled with beauty and wit, and life is not complete without a happy marriage and children. This single, narrowly defined perspective leaves many people in the dust with, so it seems, little chance for romance and love. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t fit into this story line, you seem to be destined to die alone-and miserable about it. Ã¢â¬Å"(327). Obviously this is not true to real life, but it is the message being sent to children. In real life relationships, true love is based not only on attraction, but a healthy, stable balance of commitment, trust, care, intimacy, and passion. Beauty and romance fade and if that is the only thing sustaining your love, love fades as well. ArielÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to get Eric to kiss her. Notice Eric doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to tell her Ã¢â¬Å"I love youÃ¢â¬ ; he has to kiss her, which is in itself very sexual. Kissing can lead to many other things, but at the same kissing can just be kissing and nothing more. But this hints that there is some sexual attraction, and sexual need associated with love, and that without a magical kiss love doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. Eric doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know ArielÃ¢â¬â¢s name until they are in the boat. He is confused over if he loves her or not, if she is the girl who saved him, but he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know the girls name, he knows nothing about her. This portrays men as shallow because he is acting strictly on beauty and not character, at least Ariel knows his name and a little about him, making women seem as if they care more about character than looks. Anyone who has grown up hearing or watching fairytales can predict the ending of The Little Mermaid. It has the ideal perfect ending for a love story and fairytale. The girl is saved by her prince charming, the villain is defeated, there is a celebration (usually a wedding) and there is a magical kiss. Eric saves Ariel from Ursula and is in turn rewarded with ArielÃ¢â¬â¢s hand in marriage. Marriage is Ã¢â¬Å"the fulcrum and major eventÃ¢â¬ (Lieberman, 386) in this story. It is at the end, but nonetheless the major event. It is when everyone gets what they want. This is where the story ends; it shows nothing of the married life. Marcia Lieberman observes that fairytales focus more on the courtship in relationships and not married life, which she says can cause children to Ã¢â¬Å"develop a deep-seated desire to be courted, since marriage is literally the end of the storyÃ¢â¬ (394). Children will begin to think relationships end in happily ever after, when in real life no relationship is perfect, at some point there will be some kind of stress or strain in the relationship, weather an argument, financial difficulties or infidelity, it will happen. So if these are the messages being sent to children through The Little Mermaid, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t it setting them up for disappointment and failure? If children believe this is the way things should be, they will seek out those things and when they are faced with true love in real life they wont recognize it. Or if children feel unattractive or unworthy they may not accept love when given to them because they have been conditioned to believe love is only for pretty people, not average or ugly people. This outlook on love isnÃ¢â¬â¢t healthy for children, or anyone for that matter. Bettelheim would argue that Ã¢â¬ a more complex plot would confuse [children]Ã¢â¬ , but I believe this oversimplification confuses children even more. Yes love is hard to explain to children because love doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen the same for everyone, but should children be focusing on love at such a young age? If the ultimate purpose of a fairytale is to show children they can overcome lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s obstacles, why not present them with obstacles they are facing at the moment? Like the struggle of establishing themselves as individuals by defining who they are. Those lessons are the lessons that should be taught through any fairytale, not lessons telling children that love is spontaneous, passionate, for attractive people and Ã¢â¬Å"happily ever afterÃ¢â¬ . Works Cited Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Ethnicity 1 I believe they, the Middle Eastern people and Asians were already being stigmatized way before 9/11, especially the Asians during WW II, and it took them 20 years later to repeal the two laws which allowed for imprisonment of people, deemed to be in collaboration with foreign enemies and the second which was the Executive Order 9066, that used the presidential power of the Chief Executive Officer to order the wartime imprisonment of Japanese Americans. Japanese Americans in Concentration Camps. (n.d.). After 9/11 it has become worse, not only for the Middle Eastern people and Asians but for other ethnic people too. There seems to be a mentality or rather narrow mindedness that people have and it is not just in the U.S. but all over, no thanks to the media**. It is the mentality of them against us, if these newcomers (immigrants) cannot or will not embrace our way of life, then there is something wrong with them or if there is a rise in crime or violence, it is because of them, th e immigrants that brought all these problems to us and we have to put a stop to it by any means necessary which would include profiling that of which law enforcement do when tracking a suspect in a criminal case and to track down these terrorists is no different. It is just a fact of life, that all ethnic groups are always going to be profiled and assumptions are always going to be made about each ethnic group despite theShow MoreRelatedHeritage Assessment and Cultural Project1133 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe needs of different patient populations to provide quality care among cultures. 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Many Americans feared that the Japanese economy would soon overtake Americas and that people were losingRead MoreVisiting a Middle Eastern Grocery Store1518 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesgood idea. Since my last choice for this project was visiting Ethnic grocery store I got on computer and googled Ã¢â¬Å"Middle Eastern grocery stores in DenverÃ¢â¬ . I decided to go with Middle Eastern store and not Asian or Hispanic because IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never been in one, and never really tried any type of Middle Eastern food, but I do like to try different foods and love to cook. Besides that I go to Asian stores quite often, and Hispanic stores are all over Colorado, so I thought they would not be so exiting to meRead MoreTheme Of Orientalism In The Novel Frankenstein823 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesspecies. The contrast between what is Ã¢â¬Å"u sÃ¢â¬ and what is alien poses questions about identity, existence and social structure. 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The plaza ha s some western restaurants or cuisines like Buffalo Wild Wings and some brunch restaurantsRead MoreWestern Education And Western Schools900 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Over the years, people have been arguing over which side of the world has the better educational system, Western or Eastern. As a result, questions arise from these arguments such as Ã¢â¬Å"Does education from the East have a more efficient education than that of the West?Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Does diversity in the Western part of the world play a benefit for the Western students that make the West better for education?Ã¢â¬ . It is safe to assume that Asian countries, such as China and Korea, do seem to have a more cohesiveRead MoreForeign Relations Between The Middle Eastern Sunni And Eastern Asia1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesregions of the world, the Middle Eastern Sunni, including the Oil rich Gulf States, and Eastern Asia, holding some of the greatest economic powers of the world, China and Japan, the US needs to make extr emely stratigraphy policies in order to create a more desirable relationship between not only it and the countries of those regions, but also of those regions with their neighbors. In order to establish a more desirable relationship between the Middle Eastern Sunni and Eastern Asia, and accomplish theRead MoreSeptember 11th Will Be Remembered As The Most Painful And Unbelievable Days That Ever Happened? Essay1456 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSeptember 11th will be remembered as the most painful and unbelievable days that ever happened in the United States. Many people in the U.S was shocked and confused of what just happened. The day that changed the way people viewed life. This heartbreaking events surely affect very Americans, and certainly affect lots of people around the world. Many Americans had to live under a series of deadly terrorist acts. There were many victims were in airplanes and in offices. Thousands of lives were allRead MoreSilk Road1687 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Silk Road was a trade network the connected the East to the West on the Eurasian continent. This trade included both overland and maritime routes. The central Asian kingdoms and peoples became the nexus point for much of this trade which lasted from the 3rd century B.C.E. to the 15th century C.E. Many products and other cultural expressions moved along the Silk Road and diffused among various kingdoms along it. In breaking down and separating the patterns of interaction that occurred along theRead MoreBabel Movie Analysis891 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfilm Babel, written by Guillermo Arriaga and directed by Alejandro GonzÃ ¡lez IÃ ±Ã ¡rritu, depicts the failures of communication and the realistic effects that it has within certain cultures. The film reveals four different cultures: Middle Eastern, Hispanic, American, and Asian. The film expresses each character struggles with not only articulating their concerns but assertion problems they are facing thus making each one feel powerless in thei r strives. With the director focusing on quick judgement calls
Friday, December 27, 2019
Part of the reason so many ordinary people doubt the evolutionary link between feathered dinosaurs and birds is because when they think of the word dinosaur, they picture enormous beasts like Brachiosaurus and Tyrannosaurus Rex, and when they think of the word bird, they picture harmless, rodent-sized pigeons and hummingbirds, or perhaps the occasional eagle or penguin. (See a gallery of feathered dinosaur pictures and profiles and an article explaining why birds arent dinosaur-sized.) Closer to the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, though, the visual referents are a lot different. For decades, paleontologists have been digging up small, birdlike theropods (the same family of two-legged, meat-eating dinosaurs that includes tyrannosaurs and raptors) bearing unmistakable evidence of feathers, wishbones, and other bits of avian anatomy. Unlike larger dinosaurs, these smaller theropods tend to be unusually well-preserved, and many such fossils have been discovered completely intact (which is more than can be said for the average sauropod). Types of Feathered Dinosaurs So many dinosaurs of the later Mesozoic Era sported feathers that its virtually impossible to pin down the exact definition of a true dino-bird. These include: Raptors. Despite what you saw in Jurassic Park, Velociraptor was almost certainly covered with feathers, as was the dinosaur it was modeled on, Deinonychus. At this point, the discovery of a provably non-feathered raptor would be major news! Ornithomimids. Bird mimic dinosaurs like Ornithomimus and Struthiomimus probably looked like giant ostriches, complete with feathers--if not all over their bodies, at least on certain regions. Therizinosaurs. All of the dozen or so genera of this small family of bizarre, long-clawed, plant-eating theropods likely had feathers, though this has yet to be conclusively proven. Troodonts and oviraptorosaurs. Typified by, you guessed it, the North American Troodon and the central Asian Oviraptor, virtually all of the members of this theropod family seem to have been covered with feathers. Tyrannosaurs. Believe it or not, we have conclusive evidence that least some tyrannosaurs (like the recently discovered Yutyrannus) were feathered--and the same may hold for the juveniles of Tyrannosaurus Rex. Avialan dinosaurs. Heres where paleontologists classify the feathered dinosaurs that dont fit in the above categories; the most famous avialan is Archaeopteryx. Further complicating matters, we now have evidence that at least some genera of ornithopods, plant-eating dinosaurs unrelated to modern birds, had primitive feathers as well! (For more on this subject, see Why Did Dinosaurs Have Feathers?) Which Feathered Dinosaurs Evolved Into Birds? What do all of these genera tell us about the evolution of prehistoric birds from dinosaurs? Well, for starters, its impossible to pin down a single missing link between these two types of animals. For a while, scientists believed the 150-million-year-old Archaeopteryx was the indisputable transitional form, but its still not clear if this was a true bird (as some experts claim) or a very small, and not very aerodynamic, theropod dinosaur. (In fact, a new study claims that the feathers of Archaeopteryx werent strong enough to sustain extended bursts of flight.) For more, see Was Archaeopteryx a Bird or a Dinosaur? The problem is, the subsequent discovery of other small, feathered dinosaurs that lived around the same time as Archaeopteryx--such as Epidendrosaurus, Pedopenna and Xiaotingia--has muddied the picture considerably, and theres no ruling out the possibility that future paleontologists will unearth dino-birds dating to as far back as the Triassic period. In addition, its far from clear that all of these feathered theropods were closely related: evolution has a way of repeating its jokes, and feathers (and wishbones) may well have evolved multiple times. (For more on this subject, see How Did Feathered Dinosaurs Learn to Fly?) The Feathered Dinosaurs of Liaoning Every now and then, a treasure trove of fossils forever changes the publics perception of dinosaurs. Such was the case in the early 1990s, when researchers uncovered the rich deposits in Liaoning, a northeastern province of China. All of the fossils discovered here--including exceptionally well-preserved feathered theropods, accounting for over a dozen separate genera--date from about 130 million years ago, making Liaoning a spectacular window into the early Cretaceous period. (You can recognize a Liaoning dino-bird from its name; witness the sino, meaning Chinese, in Sinornithosaurus, Sinosauropteryx and Sinovenator.) Since Liaonings fossil deposits represent a mere snapshot in the 165-million-year-old rule of the dinosaurs, their discovery raises the possibility that more dinosaurs were feathered than scientists have ever dreamed--and that the evolution of dinosaurs into birds was not a one-time, non-repeatable, linear process. In fact, its very possible that dinosaurs evolved into what we would recognize as birds numerous times over the course of the Mesozoic Era--with only one branch surviving into the modern age and producing those pigeons, sparrows, penguins and eagles we all know and love.