Thursday, August 27, 2020
In the mid 1400Ã¢â¬â¢s the vast majority didn't wander outside of their origination. Most didn't live long lives. They kicked the bucket either from labor, starvation, or disorder. We will compose a custom exposition test on China 1400Ã¢â¬â¢s or then again any comparable point just for you Request Now Their insight into Arts, medication, work, and law was kept to the little town and the families that lived there. They would have voyage just a couple of miles to the following town to exchange or shop for necessities. The greater part of their food admission would have been corn, wheat, sorghum, rice and grain. Be that as it may, not very far away in a similar world there were preachers, travelers, pioneers, heros, sailor, troop pioneers and vendors. Wayfarers and champions advanced toward towns and brought individuals into their trap of systems most without wanting to. Before all else traders resembled lower class individuals. They were observed intently, and their exercises were directed. Anyway as the world got greater the traders developed in influence, riches, and status. China was a force house in the mid 1400Ã¢â¬â¢s. They were a propelled area and would have been best arranged for the developing scene showcase. They were exchanging silk, flavors, tea, religion, and ailment. Affliction was a downside/burden of having voyagers, dealers and merchants in your general vicinity. China had an armada of boats that ventured out to spots, for example, Calicut, Thailand, and different nations. Be that as it may, in 1421 a head named Yongle halted a journeys by the Ming Fleet, and in 1436 sovereign Zhu Qizhen requested the obliteration of all shipbuilding plans. China got secluded from different nations and disconnected from itself shippers and dealers were not bolstered by the legislature and were not shielded from privateers. The populace nearly significantly increased in size from the 1400Ã¢â¬â¢s to the 1600 to a stunning 160 million. The lion's share were poor and couldn't buy from Chinese dealers. Step by step instructions to refer to China 1400Ã¢â¬â¢s, Essay models
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Question: Talk about the Research and Decision Making for Business. Answer: Presentation The motivation behind the exploration work has been obviously expressed in the presentation part of the examination work. The presentation is one of the most significant pieces of the examination work, which empower the perusers to get the focal thought regarding the exploration. The creators have discussed the earlier impediments of the examination works and have expressed the reason unmistakably that the current research work will fundamentally investigate those restrictions to finish the exploration work. The creators have related the investigation to the macroeconomic changes in the market. The creators have called attention to that the macroeconomic changes have brought about the activity misfortune among the works in the United States. Hence, it very well may be said that the creators have dealt with all the elements that bring about the activity misfortune and can influence the wellbeing of the laborers who are working in the nation. Proclamation of the issue The announcement of the issue is obviously expressed in the presentation part of the examination work. The constraints of the earlier research have been expressed well in the presentation part. The confinement that the writers have distinguished in the earlier research works have made the perusers mindful of the issues of the cross-sectional information and the longitudinal information. The cross sectional information is chiefly founded on the number of inhabitants in a region or different firms, affiliation or area. Then again, longitudinal information is about research, which depends on a specific period. In any case, the creators have uncovered that those longitudinal information can't be applied for the laborers of the considerable number of classes in the United States. Consequently, the issues of the activity frailty and the issues that have been distinguished in the past research works have been expressed appropriately in the exploration work. Motivation behind the examination It would have been exceptional if the creators have referenced the difficult explanation, the motivation behind the investigation independently. The perusers could have effectively comprehended the various segments of the exploration works and the examination work would have been progressively simpler for the perusers to comprehend. Research question The fundamental difficulty of the exploration work is that there is neither any unmistakably expressed research questions, look into destinations and the point of the examination work. Research addresses help the perusers as well as help the analyst to monitor the inquiries that should be replied in the exploration work. Hence, look into questions are a significant piece of the examination work that the creators have neglected. In any case, the creators could utilize the theories to keep a beware of the progression of the examination and the regions that should be looked into to finish the work. Hypothetical structure The creators have not utilized any hypothetical structure for the examination work. The hypothetical system is vital for an examination fill in as it present to the perusers the whole structure of the writing survey and supports the optional research work of the analysts. In the event that a hypothetical structure could be introduced in the accompanying exploration work, at that point the system could have been apologized in the accompanying way: Figure 1: Theoretical structure for the examination (Source: Created by creator) The creators principally will investigate the issues of occupation frailty in the United States. Be that as it may, before continuing with the exploration work, they have investigated the earlier confinements of different works. The apparent activity weakness and the implications and estimations of the equivalent is examined. At long last, the impact of the activity weakness has been introduced in the examination. Writing audit The creators have not referenced independently about the writing audit. The writers ought to have utilized an alternate heading, which would have made the examination work more clear to the perusers. For any exploration work, it is essential to utilize the references that are not over five years of age. The examination works are written in the year, 2009. Therefore, the creators ought to have utilized references from the year 2004 until the year, 2009. In any case, the creators have utilized references that are dated 1994, 1995 and more seasoned than these years. Late information would have made the perusers mindful of late works that have been finished by the creators. Then again, the creators have taken an extensive stretch to consider the adjustments in the apparent activity uncertainty and the wellbeing of the laborers. Therefore, the writers have the literary works that have composed ten years back. Be that as it may, they could have fused equivalent measure of writing from the history just as from the present to keep an equalization in the writing survey of the exploration work. Strategies The writers applied the longitudinal information assortment strategy to compose the examination work. Moreover, they have not neglected to utilize the cross sectional information assortment as they have gathered the information from Americans Changing Lives (ACL) and Midlife in the United States (MIDUS). The creators have gathered the primary arrangement of before the view of the professional stability and they have additionally gathered the information by catching up with the information assortment costs. The creators have thought about a long scope of time to gather the information. They have begun with three years and have gathered the information over a time of ten years. The range has helped the creators to investigate the variety that may have occurred in the whole range. To get a 3600 thought regarding the relations between the employer stability and the wellbeing of the laborers the creators have taken the assistance of three speculations. The example size and the kinds of th e members who partook in the examination work are proper for the exploration works. The creators have taken the input of the members who are more than 25 years and have thought about the members who are matured 60 years. The range is fitting for the investigation since individuals land into the positions in the age of 25 years. The issue of professional stability and joblessness begins when an individual arrived at the age gathering of 25 years. the impact on the wellbeing can be seen at the later age. Subsequently, the 60 years is ideal for the investigation to get a thought on the impact on wellbeing. The information assortment instrument like the poll is huge for the current research work. The creators have gathered the information by leading overviews, up close and personal meetings and over testing. With the assistance of the surveys, the creators have had the option to get the specific information required for the exploration. They had the option to additionally dissect the in formation with the assistance of Stata with the assistance of the poll. The unwavering quality and the legitimacy of the examination have not been referenced in the exploration work. Notwithstanding, it tends to be said that the exploration is both solid and substantial. It very well may be said dependable in light of the fact that the creators thought about essential research and thus they have had the option to recover the genuine information. It is legitimate on the grounds that they have contemplated an examination that has been accomplished for a long scope of period. Hence, the consequence of the examination can be pertinent for any sort of information. Investigation The creators have mulled over a gigantic scope of information and that has been gathered for a long scope of time. The creators have utilized the Stata programming rendition 10.0 SE. The creators have utilized the customary least squares (OLS) to make the multivariate examinations. The quantitative information investigation ought to be utilized when the creators are mulling over an enormous arrangement of information. The nearby finished inquiries have been useful for the creators to investigate the information and arrive at the best possible finish of the examination work. The investigative methodology of the creators is appropriate for the current research structure, which is basically founded on the essential research approach by the creators. Results The creators of the examination work have introduced result area in an all around portrayed way. The tables that indicated the points of view of the members have been clarified appropriately. The criticism of the respondents from the various associations, Americans Changing Lives (ACL) and Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) are referenced independently in the outcome segments. The creators can show that the varieties of the attitudes of the individuals from the various associations. Be that as it may, they are additionally ready to show the likeness among the criticism of the respondents from the various associations. Conversation As the there are no exploration questions or hypothetical structure introduced in the examination work, henceforth there was no linkage in the conversation segment of the task. Notwithstanding, the creators have connected the speculations that have been considered in the underlying phase of the exploration have been talked about in the conversation part of the examination work. What's more, the creators of the current research have connected with the discoveries with the examination works that have been finished by different creators. The creators have brought up that the consequences of the current research work is steady with the work that have been finished by Heaney and different creators with Michigan car laborers in the year 1994 and Ferrie and different creators with British government employees in the year 2002. Confinements The confinements of the examination are not referenced independently and are referenced in the conversation segment of the exploration work. Impediments are a piece of the exploration work with the goal that the future creators can get a thought regarding the regions that not have been shrouded in the current research.. Notwithstanding, the creators have called attention to that the specific wellbeing status of the laborers of the considerable number of regions couldn't be canvassed in the current research work, which is the fundamental impediment of the examination work. The consequence of the examination can be altogether unique if the creators have mulled over different variables to do the work. Moreover, they have thought about specific age gathering to accomplish the examination work. The aftereffect of the exploration can be totally extraordinary if some other age bunch is considered to finish the
Friday, August 21, 2020
Writing the Methods Section of a Research PaperWriting the methods section of a research paper is not a difficult task. You need to remember that it is there to provide the readers with the strategies that you use in your research process. By writing the methods section, you will be able to explain why you did a certain research study and what the results were.As long as you know what you are going to say, writing the methods section should not be too difficult. But at times, it can be very difficult for many people to come up with a good argument as to why they did a certain study. You need to know when it is time to explain the study as to why you conducted it. If you are not sure about this, just ask your research assistant to help you out.It is important that you know the purpose of writing the methods section. In doing so, you will be able to understand what the sections are all about. Most of the research papers that you read contain the methods section and the body of the rese arch paper. That is why it is important that you write the methods section correctly.The first thing that you need to do in writing the methods section is to summarize the methods that you used in your research. When you summarize the methods section, you should be able to demonstrate why you actually did the study and what the results were. This will help your readers understand why you did the study.One important part of writing the methods section is to identify the researcher. In doing so, you will be able to show which method the researcher used. This is a necessary step in writing the methods section as well.Once you have done this, you will need to talk about the subject and the ways that you did it in a specific way. For example, if you are writing the methods section for a research paper on the common cold, you need to talk about how you conducted your study. In this case, you should discuss what type of culture or place you were conducting the study from and what the main ideas were.The methods section is also very important in doing a final report. Without a good methods section, you will not be able to give your reader an explanation about why you did the study. You need to know the rationale behind each research that you did.When you are writing the methods section, you should keep the paragraphs short and simple. There are times when you need to use several paragraphs to show the reasoning that you did. It is best that you just go into detail when you need to and just talk about what you have done.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
While direct object nouns and pronouns answer the questionsÃ what?Ã orÃ whom?, indirect object nouns and pronouns answer the questionsÃ to whom?Ã orÃ for whom?. Ã¢â¬Å"I told John that I wanted to go to Italy, but when I told John that, he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t listening. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know why I try to talk to John.Ã¢â¬ While you can easily understand the sentences above, they sound unnatural and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s because instead of using a pronoun, like Ã¢â¬Å"himÃ¢â¬ , the speaker has simply repeated Ã¢â¬Å"JohnÃ¢â¬ over and over again. UsingÃ indirect object pronouns in place of the noun can help spoken and written language flow more naturally. In English the word to is often omitted: We gave a cookbook to Uncle John.Ã¢â¬âWe gave Uncle John a cookbook.Ã However, in Italian, the preposition a is always used before an indirect object noun. Abbiamo regalato un libro di cucina allo zio Giovanni. - We gave a cookbook to Uncle John.PerchÃ © non regali un profumo alla mamma? - Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t you give mother aÃ perfume?Puoi spiegare questa ricetta a Paolo? - Can you explain this recipe to Paul? As you saw above in the example with Ã¢â¬Å"JohnÃ¢â¬ , indirect object pronouns (i pronomi indiretti) replace indirect object nouns. They are identical in form to direct object pronouns, except for the third person forms gli, le, and loro. SINGULAR PLURAL mi (to/for) me ci (to/for) us ti (to/for) you vi (to/for) you Le (to/for) you (formal m. and f.) Loro (to/for) you (form., m. and f.) gli (to/for) him loro (to/for) them le (to/for) her Correct Placement of Indirect Object Pronouns Indirect object pronouns, just like direct object pronouns, precede a conjugated verb, except for loro and Loro, which follow the verb. Le ho dato tre ricette. - I gave her three recipes.Ci offrono un caffÃ ¨. - They offer us a cup of coffee.Parliamo loro domani. - WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll talk to them tomorrow. A: Che cosa regali allo zio Giovanni? - What are you giving Uncle John? B: Gli regalo un libro di cucina. - Ill give him a cookbook. Indirect object pronouns can also be attached to an infinitive, and when that happens the Ã¢â¬âe of the infinitive is dropped. Non ho tempo di parlargli. - I have no time to talk to him.Non ho tempo di parlarle. - I have no time to talk to her. If the infinitive comes before a form of the verbs dovere, potere, or volere, the indirect object pronoun is either attached to the infinitive (after the Ã¢â¬âe is dropped) or placed before the conjugated verb. Voglio parlargli /Ã Gli voglio parlare. - I want to talk to him. FUN FACT: Le and gli never connect before a verb beginning with a vowel or an h. Le offro un caffÃ ¨Ã - I offer her a cup of coffee.Gli hanno detto Ã «Ciao!Ã ». -Ã They said Ciao! to him. Common Verbs Used with Indirect Objects The following common Italian verbs are used with indirect object nouns or pronouns. dare to give dire to say domandare to ask (im)prestare to lend insegnare to teach mandare to send mostrare to show offrire to offer portare to bring preparare to prepare regalare to give (as a gift) rendere to return, give back riportare to bring back scrivere to write telefonare to telephone
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Within the covers of the Bible are the answers for all the problems men face.Ã¢â¬ (Quotes About Christianity) This quote is from Ronald Regan, and I think it is a good representation of Christianity. Christianity is centered on the teachings and life of Jesus of Nazareth which is found in the Bible. Along with the teachings of Jesus, Christians believe in the Old Testament, that has biblical records that date back to 1500 B.C.E.. Some of these beliefs include the Holy Trinity, salvation, afterlife, and the Bible. The belief in the Holy Trinity is what I believe to be the most important belief in Christianity. The Holy Trinity consists of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The first part of the Trinity is the Father or God. Christians believe that God created the world, and that he sustains it. They believe that God is all-powerful, all-knowing, all-present, and all-good. The God in Christianity is the same God as in Judaism. Jewish people believe that their God is t he God of Abraham, and Christians believe the same. Christians also believe that God has a love for all people, and a desire to save the world. Christians believe that God chose to reveal himself through the second part of the Trinity (Trinitarian Monotheism, 2015). The second part of the Trinity is the Son, or Jesus. Jesus is believed to be the son of God, and that he is God made flesh. Christians believe that he preached a message of concerned salvation, love, and care for the poor and those in need.Show MoreRelatedThe Beliefs that Effect Christianity Essay1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesChristianity is a diverse religion with a multitude of beliefs that comprise the core of the religion. There are an abundant number of sects within Christianity however there are a few core principles which are generally true for all of them, for example the belief of the Holy Trinity or better known as the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. 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Furthermore, the doctrine of the Trinity is so crucial to Christianity, that if it was removed Christianity would crumble and fall into cult status. Even through the doctrine of the Trinity took almost a three hundred to be formally stated at the Council of Nicea (325) and the Council of Constantople (381);1 RogerRead MoreComparison And Contrast Of World Religions1194 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesReligions The religions of the world, while differing greatly in their specifics, are surprisingly similar. The three most prevalent religions in the world are Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism, in that order. All believe in a higher power that presides over and created man. Islam originated in approximately 609 C.E., or Common Era, and Christianity originated around 33 C.E. which is supposedly when Jesus Christ was crucified. The main prophet of Islam, Muhammad, is supposedly of the lineage of Jesus ChristRead More`` Dear Billy Bob Joe `` Essay1716 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesunderstand why someone with no religious upbringing or background would not quite know where to start when taking a look at Christianity; however, IÃ¢â¬â¢m here to help you understand the amazing aspects of Christianity. These aspects have caused over two billion people around the world to dedicate their lives and ways to follow the center of the religion- God. There are many parts of Christianity that differentiate it from other religions, but for the sake of your time and immediate sanity- I will only delveRead MoreThe Problem of the Trinity1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿The Problem of the Trinity The Mystery The concept of the Trinity was first formulated by St. Augustine in the Nicene Creed in seven statements: 1. The Father is God 2. The Son is God 3. The Holy Spirit is God 4. The Father is not the Son 5. The Son is not the Holy Spirit 6. The Holy Spirit is not the Father 7. There is only one God (Augustine, 1948). The problem stated in the classical way was such: how can three equal one, or one equal three? Secondly on the one hand we are toldRead MoreThe Doctrine Of The Trinity861 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBefore discussing the Trinity, it is essential to first understand the Doctrine of the Trinity and what it states. Unfortunately for Christians, an exact definition for the Trinity is not provided in the Bible, actually the word Ã¢â¬ËtrinityÃ¢â¬â¢ is never even used in the Bible. Fortunately, however, the Bible is saturated in the belief of a Triune God. The Doctrine of the Trinity states that there is only one God. The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are all one God, but the Father is not the Son whoRead MoreReligious Site Report : The Holy Trinity Church1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRELIGIOUS SITE REPORT: HOLY TRINITY CHURCH BY BOWEN CHAN MAY 18 2016 PROFESSOR ANTONY ANTOKIN I went to the Holy Trinity Eastern Orthodox Church in San Francisco. They established in December 1857 in San Francisco then later incorporated into Greek Russian Slavonian belief. During the late 1880s, the population of the church exponentially increased, when Greek Immigration exploded and the church was firmly confirmed as the place for dedicated worship to the Greek Orthodox faith. AfterRead MoreChristianity Is A Religion Based On The Person And God1479 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespeople in the World who follow and support the Catholic Church. Christianity is a religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Ever since Christianity started to emerge in the mid-first century it has only increased in size and became even more powerful now than in the origins of the Religion. Jesus Christ is considered to be the Son of God and through the BibleÃ¢â¬â¢s scriptures that include many sacred writings of Christianity it has given people hope and more importantly something to Read MoreThe World Views Of Islam And Christianity1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIslam and Christianity This term we have covered a reasonable amount of materials based on the different types of religions in the world. There are many religions that have strong views and principles, and in order to understand them we must have an open mind and a true understanding of their beliefs. For the purpose of this essay, I will focus on the world views of Islam and compare it to Christianity. Part I Islam is a traditional monotheistic religion that urbanized in the Middle East, Common
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
In the United States today, as many as 10 million females and 1 million males are fighting a life and death battle with an eating disorder (Collins). The two most commonly known eating disorders in America are anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder characterized by extremely low body weight, distorted body image and an obsessive fear of gaining weight and bulimia nervosa, an eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating, followed by purging. While eleven million is a startling number, eating disorders are even more prevalent among athletes, particularly those involved in types of sports that place great importance on the athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s weight and the need to be thin. The reasons for this higher percentage of eating disorders among athletes in comparison to non-athletes had been explained in several studies. However, there are several conflicting models of how athletic participation might be related to eating problems (Smolak). Some studies have posited that there is no difference between anorexia in non-athletes and anorexia athletica, the common term for eating disorders frequent among athletes. While there are similar psychological factors at play in both cases, there are several unique features to athletesÃ¢â¬â¢ eating disorders that earn anorexia athletica a distinction from other disorders. Some studies suggest that the link between athletics and eating problems is nothing more than a greater frequency of common problems evidenced in non-athletes. Certainly there are similarities in athletes and non-athletes suffering from eating disorders; in fact, there are many personality characteristics and attributes associated with eating problems that might also be descriptive of athletes: competitiveness, concern with performance, compulsive concern with body shape, and perfectionism (Brownell). The same competitive, perfectionist attitude that all elite athletes share can lead to distorted body image and ultimately lead to serious eating disorders. While there is some credence to this theory, some studies go so far as to discount the label Ã¢â¬Å"anorexia athleticaÃ¢â¬ completely which I believe to be an oversimplification of a serious disorder. The fact of the matter is eating disorders extremely high prevalence of eating disorders in athletes, especially female athletes, cannot be explained away by oversimplifications and generalizations. While the eating disorders in athletes and non-athletes have the same result: eduction in body fat mass, the reasons behind the changes are different. In anorexia athletica, the reduction in body mass is based on performance and accomplishment above all and not unwarranted distress about body shape and appearance (Sudi). When it comes down to it, athletes worry about weight to enhance their athletic performance, not to to fit into the latest fall fashions. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s also a huge difference in the expectations of both groups Ã¢â¬â the athletes and non athletes. While the expectations of non-athletes may be vague (Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll feel betterÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"I look so hot in a bikiniÃ¢â¬ ), the athletes have a set of rewards and achievements they believes theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll get if they lose weight whether it be lowering their 100 meter time or finally landing that triple axle (ANRED). The importance of thinness and demands for self-discipline invite the female athlete to believe that she is being good when she limits her food. It causes the belief that if she is good for a long enough period of time, she will improve her performance, win more often, and achieve more glory. She associates weight loss with becoming quicker, faster, and stronger (Smolak). Another factor is that some athletes can perform well for a considerably long period despite the disorder. That influences their merit system and causes a belief that the eating disorder is required for the success and accomplishment. When their performance is begins to suffer, that in turn causes a belief the athletes need to cut back even more drastically than before to get the desired results (Mirror-Mirror). Athletes often have better excuses for not eating than non-athletes. For example, on of the most common excuses for uncontrollable weight loss in athletes is that they simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t have time to eat because of competitions, training schedules, practice sessions, and traveling. Eating before practice or competition is impossible because the athlete is nervous, because it will make her feel heavy and slow, because it will leave her bloated, because it will make her sick to her stomach. Afterwards, she canÃ¢â¬â¢t eat because she would feel nauseated and hopefully she is to busy celebrating for anyone to think about food (ANRED). Another difference between the two situations is that athletes can hide eating disorders more easily than non-athletic patients. The emphasis in athletics on low body fat and thinness, the stress, and the devotion and discipline required to comply, make it relatively easy for a female athlete to hide an eating disorder. It is quite easy to mistake weight loss due to not eating for weight loss due to eating right and exercising. Indeed, athletes may even receive praise and admiration from unwitting coaches and teammates for their self-control and denial of appetite (Mirror-Mirror). Even within the group of athletes there are marked differences based on both gender and type of sport. Eating problems are more common amid female athletes than male athletes. A lot of female athletes descend into eating disorders in a desperate effort to be thin in order to gratify trainers (who may not be even educated enough abut eating disorders) and judges (Turk). Many trainers are responsible of compelling these athletes to become thinner by passing judgment on their weight or criticizing them. Those remarks could bring an athlete to choose hazardous means of weight control and can cause serious emotional damage to the athlete (ANRED). Ninety-three percent of athletes who reported eating disorders according to one research were in womens sports (Smolak). The sports that had the highest number of participants with eating disorders, in descending order, were womens cross country, womens gymnastics, womens swimming, and womens track and field events. The male sports with the highest number of participants with eating disorders were wrestling and cross-country (Collins). The female athlete is twice as at risk for the development of an eating disorder. She is influenced by relentless sociall strain to be lean that affects all females in westernized countries. However, unlike non-athletes, she also part of a sports environment that may overvalue performance, low body fat, and an idealized, unrealistic body shape, size, and weight. Persistent exposure to the burden of the athletic subculture added to the shower of media and cultural images in the daily life may make her particularly susceptible to the trap of weight loss and unhealthy ways of achieving that loss. Males also develop eating disorders but at a much reduced incidence (90-95% female; 5-10% male). Males may be protected somewhat by their basic biology (Brownell ). Many fields of sports require low percentages of body fat. As a general rule, men have more lean muscle tissue and less fatty tissue than women do. In addition, males tend to have higher metabolic rates than females for the reason that muscle burns more calories faster than fat does. Consequently, women, who overall carry more body fat than men, with slower metabolisms and smaller frames, require fewer calories than men do (ANRED). Several studies imply that those active in sports that underline appearance and a lean body are at higher risk for developing an eating disorder than those who are non-athletes or those involved in sports that require muscle mass and bulk (ANRED). Eating disorders are more common in sports such as gymnastics, figure skating, dancing and synchronized swimming. It is also a problem in types of sport that require lean body, but do not stress Ã¢â¬Å"appearanceÃ¢â¬ , like running, rowing, horse racing, and riding. Wrestlers, usually thought of as strong and massive, may binge eat before a match to carbohydrate load and then purge to make weight in a lower class (Sudi). According to an American College of Sports Medicine study, eating disorders affected 62 percent of females in sports like figure skating and gymnastics. On the other hand, sports such as basketball, skiing and volleyball have noticeably lower rates of eating disorders (American College of Sports Medicine). In sports like cheerleading, figure skating and dance so much emphasis is placed on appearance and expression that athletes in those sports feel a great deal of pressure not only to compete well but to look good doing it. While anorexia athletica is not the same disorder as anorexia nervosa, it can have some of the same long-term effects if it goes on for an extended amount of time. For some female athletes, the pressure to achieve and maintain a low body weight leads to potentially harmful patterns of restrictive eating or long-term dieting. The health status of athletes is therefore must be closely monitored because the energy and nutritional inadequacies combined with the use of purging methods often found in young athletes have negative long-term effect (Sudi). Long-term dieting affects body composition, increases the risk for cardiovascular disease, and leads to endocrine abnormalities associated with reproductive function In female athletes, delayed onset of menarche, menstrual irregularities, decreased bone formation (also recognized as the Female Athlete Triad), and a high frequency of injuries have been reported. Skeletal abnormalities, notably scoliosis, decreased bone density, failure to reach peak bone mass, and stress fractures, may be the result of prolonged hypoestrogenism- lower than normal estrogen levels which can result from continuing dieting. Long-term energy restriction can lead to endocrine abnormalities, and the long-term adherence to low-energy diets leads to multiple changes and adaptations at the metabolic and neuroendocrine levels. Energy restriction is associated with a substantial loss in body fat mass, and hormones related to fat mass are not only part of the endocrine system but important for the regulation of energy intake and energy expenditure. Low energy availability has been shown to disrupt the hypothalamic pituitary axis, leading to irregular menstrual cycles and possibly amenorrhea, thereby shutting down a function not necessary for survival. The disruption of the luteinizing hormone pulsatility can be restored by refeeding, however, at a much slower rate. Changes in these variables may be manifested in enhanced energy efficiency, as the body seeks to protect and replenish its energy stores. This may explain the surprisingly low caloric intakes of some athletes still competing at a high level with great success, although studies on energy balance in athletes may also be biased due to undereating and/or under-recording, because restrained eaters are more prone to under-report daily food intake. Although some studies discount the difference between anorexia athletica and anorexia nervosa, the differences in motivation and expectation of anorexia athletica and common eating disorders among non-athletes warrant a separate category for anorexia athletica. This distinction is vitally important so that doctors and therapists can recognize the differences between the disorders and correctly diagnose both anorexia nervousa and anorexia athletica. Young athletes must be carefully monitored to guarantee that they maintain adequate energy intake which is crucial to maintain growth and development of tissues and to support energy requirements of competitive sports. Hopefully, this will ensure that athletes receive the proper treatment before they suffer any harmful long-term effects of their disorder.